[10], Following the outbreak of the French Revolution, his eminent military qualities brought him speedy promotion. 5 April] 1697) was King of Sweden from 1660 until his death, in a period of Swedish history known as the Swedish Empire (1611–1718).. Rumors that Napoleon relieved Bernadotte of command on the spot at Raasdorf have long been the stuff of legend, but are not verified. [4] Bernadotte's promotions came both from the esteem of his commanders as well as from his men; having been elected to the rank of lieutenant colonel and colonel by his men, though he refused both nominations in favor of traditional advancement. Charles's short reign was one of uninterrupted warfare. p. 374, Alm, Mikael; Johansson, Brittinger (Eds) (2008). [4][23], Victory at the Battle of Halmstad (17 August 1676), when Charles and his commander-in-chief Simon Grundel-Helmfelt defeated a Danish division, was the king's first glimmer of good luck. [107], His domestic policy particularly focused on promotion of economy and investment in social overhead capital, and the long peace since 1814 led to an increased prosperity for the country. He was declared king as Karl IX (anglicized as Charles IX). The tattoo is finally revealed to read Vive la république ("Long live the Republic") and a Phrygian cap: a highly ironic image and text for the skin of a king. He came into the throne by championing the Protestant cause during the increasingly tense times of religious strife between competing sects of Christianity. On the second day of battle, 6 July 1809, IX Corps, having been mauled the night before, wherein Bernadotte struggled to rally his demoralized Saxons, was attacked by two Austrian corps, as part of Archduke Charles's effort to break the French line. Following his first meeting with his new heir, Charles XIII (who had initially opposed Bernadotte's candidacy) remarked to his aide-de-camp count Charles de Suremain "My dear Suremain, I have gambled heavily, and I believe that after all I have won. [17], He became Lord and Master of all Swedish orders of chivalry upon his accession to the throne. [17] As a reward for his services at Austerlitz, he became the 1st Sovereign Prince of Ponte Corvo (5 June 1806), a district of Naples formerly subject to the Pope. He was born Prince Carl Ludwig Eugen of Sweden, Duke of Skåne, on May 3, 1826, at the Royal Palace of Stockholm, the eldest child of King Oscar I of Sweden and Josephine of Leuchtenberg.He had four younger siblings: [44] In the peace negotiations between Sweden and Denmark in 1679, the marriage between her and Charles XI was on the agenda, and ratified on 26 September 1679. Charles IV was King of Spain and the Spanish Empire from 14 December 1788, until 19 March 1808. In modern Norwegian lists of kings he is called Charles III John. Three years later, he declared it obligatory for all commoners to learn to read a catechism written by archbishop Olov Svebilius and then-bishop Haqvin Spegel so that they would understand the "magnificence of God". Having successfully fought off the Danes, he returned to Stockholm and engaged in correcting the country's neglected political, financial, and economic situation. The hostility of Poland and the breakup of Russia involved him in overseas contests for the possession of Livonia and Ingria, the Polish–Swedish War (1600–1611) and the Ingrian War, while his pretensions to claim Lappland brough… [108][109], On the other hand, radical in his youth, his views had veered steadily rightward over the years, and by the time he ascended the throne he was an ultra-conservative. Hedwig Eleonora's ostensible indifference to politics came as a great relief to the lords of the guardian government. [33][17], However, during the campaign against Prussia, in the same year, he was severely reproached by Napoleon for not participating with his army corps in the battles of Jena and Auerstädt (14 October 1806). [60] Ironically, Bernadotte did eventually wear a crown, not through the auspices of Napoleon, but as an enemy of France. [65] However, Bernadotte's praise for the Saxons, as well as his mild and courteous treatment of them while under his command, was never forgotten by the Saxon officers and this would later have disastrous consequences for the French when a whole Saxon division defected to Bernadotte's Army of the North during a key moment of the Battle of Leipzig. [98] The Army of the North committed the coup de grâce on the already depleted French and Bernadotte was the first of the Allied sovereigns to enter Leipzig. [6], Charles X Gustav's will and testament left the administration of the Swedish Empire during Charles XI's minority to a regency led by Queen Dowager Hedwig Eleonora as both formal regent and chair of a six-member Regency Council with two votes and a final say over the rest of the council. [11], It was during this period of rapid advancement that the military qualities he became known for, daring assaults and Gasconades, came to the fore. He presided over a period of peace and prosperity, and reigned until his death in 1844. He had previously been engaged to his cousin, Juliana of Hesse-Eschwege, but the engagement was broken after a scandal. The assembly has been described as one of the most important held by the Riksdag of the Estates. [27], In 1802, Napoleon Bonaparte proposed that Bernadotte head to New France to serve as governor of Louisiana, which was to be transferred back to French control following the Third Treaty of San Ildefonso. pp. In the legend he is referred to as the Greycoat (Swedish: Gråkappan). 24 November] 1655 – 15 April [O.S. In 1679, Louis XIV of France dictated the terms of a general pacification, and Charles XI, who is said to have bitterly resented "the insufferable tutelage" of the French king, was forced at last to acquiesce to a peace that managed to leave his empire practically intact. [35] This was done to discover and identify corruption and oppression against the populace. Following the outbreak of the French Revolution, he exhibited great military talent, rapidly rising through the ranks, and was made a brigadier general by 1794. Finally, the Riksdag at Linköping, 24 February 1604 declared that Sigismund abdicated the Swedish throne, that duke Charles was recognized as the sovereign. [92] The decisive reason was that Napoleon, before marching to Moscow, had to secure his rear and dared not trust a Swedish continental foothold behind him. At the Battle of Wagram (5 July 1809), he entered battle with his Saxon corps, to which the division of Dupas was attached and which formed his reserve. [28], On the introduction of the First French Empire, Bernadotte became one of the eighteen Marshals of the Empire, and from June 1804 to September 1805 served as governor of the recently occupied Hanover. [103], Speech of the King on the day of taking the oaths of allegiance and homage, 19 May 1818. pp. Genealogy profile for Charles IX, king of Sweden. During the Scanian War, the members of the council were engaged in internal feuds, and the king more or less ruled without listening to their advice. [17] In November of the same year he was made commander of the army of observation on the upper Rhine. [32] The reduction process involved the examination of every title deed in the kingdom, including the dominions, and it resulted in a complete readjustment of the nation's finances.[4][33][34]. During the period of the Allied invasion of France in the winter and spring of 1814, when it was unclear who would rule France after the war, the Russian Tsar Alexander I, with support from French liberals like Benjamin Constant and Madame de Staël, advocated placing Charles John on the French throne in place of Napoleon. Charles and Ulrika were engaged in 1675 in an attempt to smooth over longstanding hostilities, but the Scanian War soon broke out. In 1810, Bernadotte was unexpectedly elected the heir-presumptive to the childless King Charles XIII of Sweden, thanks to the advocacy of Baron Carl Otto Mörner, a Swedish courtier and obscure member of the Riksdag of the Estates. Charles XI died on 5 April 1697, in his forty-first year. His relationship with Napoleon was turbulent; nevertheless, Napoleon named him a Marshal of the Empire on the proclamation of the French Empire. Åberg (1958) gives examples: he would start with the last letter when reading words, and would spell, Rystad (2003), p. 95, estimates that 8,000–9,000 men fell out of 20,000, Ulrika Eleonora of Denmark in CF Bricka, Danish biographical encyclopaedia (1st edition, 1904), Hedvig Sophia, Duchess of Holstein-Gottorp, Adolph John I, Count Palatine of Kleeburg, "Habsburg, Maria (Herzogin zu Berg, Jülich und Cleve)", Biographisches Lexikon des Kaiserthums Oesterreich, Prince Charles Philip, Duke of Södermanland, King Władysław IV of Poland, Grand Duke of Lithuania, King John II Casimir of Poland, Grand Duke of Lithuania, John Albert, Prince-Bishop of Warmia and Kraków, Prince Frederick Adolf, Duke of Östergötland, Prince Gustaf Adolf, Duke of Västerbotten, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Charles_XI_of_Sweden&oldid=999871032, Articles with Swedish-language sources (sv), Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Swedish-language text, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles incorporating text from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the New International Encyclopedia, Digitaltmuseum template using Wikidata property P1248, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with KULTURNAV identifiers, Wikipedia articles with PLWABN identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Åberg, A., "The Swedish army from Lützen to Narva", in, This page was last edited on 12 January 2021, at 10:49. 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